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The Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science publishes original papers, research notes, commentary, and review articles in the natural, physical, engineering, and social sciences. All papers must discuss the relevance of the data presented and a clear interpretation of its meaning in view of current knowledge of the discipline concerned. Helpful references for the author are: (1) Day, R.A. 1983. How to write a scientific paper. 2nd ed. ISI Press, Philadelphia, xv + 181 pp.; (2) O’Connor, M. and F.P. Woodford. 1976. Writing scientific papers in English, Elsevier, Amsterdam, vii + 108 pp.; (3) MacGregor, A.J. 1979. Graphics simplified; and (4) How to plan and prepare effective charts, graphs, illustrations, and other visual aids, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1-64 pp.

Authors are requested to examine recent issues of the Journal in order to conform to the general style of the journal. Papers are accepted for consideration at any time. Submitted manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that the same work has not been published, copyrighted or submitted for publication elsewhere and that all persons cited as a personal communication have consented to be cited. Additionally, submission of the manuscript is a representation that all the authors for the said manuscript and the institution where the research was carried out have approved its publication. Signed authorization will be required as appropriate.

Submit names, email addresses, as well as the professional area of expertise of 4 possible reviewers who have agreed to review your manuscript. The reviewers must be outside the author’s institution, possess knowledge of current research in the area of study, and generally be professionally qualified to referee the paper. The peer reviewing process is the Editor’s responsibility, and the reviewers are selected at the discretion of the Editor.

All authors are requested to conform to the following:

1. General Format. All manuscripts should be typed, and double spaced, with 3 cm margins all around. Do not use single spacing anywhere (including Literature Cited). Images should be submitted as jpegs or tif and in the English language. Manuscripts should be organized as follows: (1) an unnumbered cover sheet with Title, Authors, their institutions and addresses, and name, address, and telephone number of the author to receive proof, (2) an unnumbered sheet with an Abstract, (3) Introduction, (4) Materials and Methods, (5) Results, (6) Discussion, (7) Acknowledgements, and (8) Literature Cited. All pages of the text, Introduction through Literature Cited, are to be numbered, and the names of authors should appear in the upper right-hand corner of each page. The text should begin in the middle of the first numbered page. Manuscripts need to be submitted in English.

2. Headings. All headings are in CAPITAL letters and centered.

3. Title. Brief and to the point. It should inform the reader of the subject of the paper.

4. Byline. Include author’s name, name of institution, department, address and zip code.

5. Abstract. A clear and concise paragraph which summarizes the research.

6. Introduction. The introduction should be concise and offer only that information necessary to orient the reader to the purpose and scope of the paper. It should state the reasons for the work and cite only published literature relevant to the subject.

7. Materials and Methods. Describe materials, methods, and equipment. Avoid repeating previously published details, unless modifications are extensive. The necessity of conciseness should not lead to omission of important experimental details necessary for others to repeat the work. When applicable, describe the experimental design and justify its use.

8. Results and Discussion. The Results section is a clear and concise account of the findings. Data should be presented in the most efficient manner, either in text, tables, or illustrations. All tables and illustrations must be referenced in the text. The Discussion section should extend or contradict current published information on the subject. Limit the discussion to the relevant subject and avoid speculation.

9. Acknowledgements. The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. The usual format is as follows: “This work was supported by Public Health Service grant CA-01234 from the National Cancer Institute.”

Recognition of personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph, as should any statements disclaiming endorsement or approval of the views reflected in the paper or of a product mentioned therein.

10. Appendixes. Appendixes that contain additional material to aid the reader are permitted. Titles, authors, and reference sections that are distinct from those of the primary article are not allowed. If it is not feasible to list the author(s) of the appendix in the byline or the Acknowledgments section of the primary article, rewrite the appendix so that it can be considered for publication as an independent article, either full-length paper or Note style. Equations, tables, and figures should be labeled with the letter “A” preceding the numeral to distinguish them from those cited in the main body of the text.

11. Literature Cited and Footnotes. Except for the title and author reference at the beginning of the paper, and superscript notation in tables, do not use footnotes. Create separate Appendices or an Endnotes section if additional supplementary text material is required. Place Endnotes section just before the Literature Cited section. Number each endnote within the Endnote section using Arabic numbers in the order in which they are referred to in the other sections of the manuscript. In other sections of the manuscript, place endnotes reference numbers in parentheses, and use the text style of type and not superscript. Place appendices after the Literature Cited section. Include a Literature Cited section: list references in alphabetical order by first author. Include only published references cited in the manuscript; unpublished work normally will be cited as personal communication (pers. comm.) in other sections of the manuscript, e.g., J.R. Halma (pers. comm.) or (J.R. Halma, pers. comm.). List all authors and full citation in the Literature Cited section. Use the most recent issue of the recognized abstracting authority to determine the correct abbreviations of periodical names (e.g., for biology use BIOSIS, Bioscience Information Service, Philadelphia, PA). If in doubt, do not abbreviate serial names. Use the following format and style for the Literature Cited section:

Journal- Monmonier, M. 1987. Title. J. Pa Acad. Sci. 62:73-77.

Book (Select pages)-Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1976. Statistical Methods. The Iowa State Univeristy Press. Ames, IA, 237-238.

Book (Complete work)-Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1976. Statistical Methods. The Iowa State Univeristy Press. Ames, IA, xix + 593 pp.

For Internet citation, choose either MLA, APA, Chicago or another appropriate style, but stay consistent in the manuscript.

In all but the Literature Cited section, cite all works by author and year. For works with one or two authors, include names in each citation, e.g., (Smith and Reif 1984), or, if authors’ names are used in the text- Smith and Reif (1984); for works by three or more authors, use et al. after the first author, e.g., (Gur et al. 1983), or, if the authors’ names are used in the text- Gur et al. (1983). Research Notes with fewer than five references should be cited within the other sections of the manuscript thereby eliminating the need for a Literature Cited section. When references are cited within the text of other sections, include authors by last name only, and do not use et al. in the citation, e.g., for a journal article- (Genys, Harman and Fuller 1984, Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci. 58:67-69), or if authors are used in the text- Genys, Harman and Fuller (1984, Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci. 58:67-69); for a book-(Snedecor and Cochran, 1976, Statistical Methods, The Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 237-238), or, if authors are used in the text-Snedecor and Cochran (1976, The Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 237- 238).

12. Research Notes. Papers submitted as short communications with an abstract are classified as Research Notes. Research Notes must contain the same basic quality of content and order of presentation as more substantial papers having content separated by section. Citations must follow the same format as articles.

13. Case Reports. While a full-length article or a Note may contain a case report section when the report is incidental to the rest of the paper, a specific Case Report format must be used when the report constitutes the entire article.

A Case Report must include an abstract of no more than 50 words. The text starts with presentation of the case under the section heading “Case Report”; there is no introductory text before the Case Report heading. After the case is presented, the rest of the text follows in a separate section after a ruled line to separate the sections. No separate head is used for this short discussion section, but paragraph lead-ins are permitted. The total number of tables and figures (combined) must not exceed 3.

14. Tables and Illustrations. Tables must have a title, be numbered, and typed on a separate page. Computer generated images or scans should be saved as Tiff, EPS, or JPEG files. Provide the legends for all illustrations in consecutive order on a separate page.

15. If animals are used in the research, the author(s) must state in the material and method section that the study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the U.S. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (or individual country of origin) and that the research was approved by the Institutional Animal Care

and Use Committee. All human subjects research, and all other activities, which in part involve human subject research, must be reviewed and approved by the institutions IRB committee.

16. There are no page charges for publication in the journal, however one of the authors must be a member of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science. Galley proofs will be sent to the authors for checking; they must be returned to the Editor within a week after receipt.

17. Editorial Policy. Every paper is reviewed by the Editor and selected professional referees. Manuscripts will be returned or rejected if considered unsuitable for publication.

18. Correspondence. Address all inquiries relating to publication in the Journal to the Editor: Carl R. Pratt, Department of Biology, 1145 King Road, 210B Loyola Hall Immaculata University, Immaculata, PA 19345. Phone: 484-323- 3276, e-mail:

19. Manuscript submission: Manuscripts may be submitted through the Editorial Manager for the Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science: